a r t h Q u e s t -N e w s
Andrew Collins Newsletter - September 2014
THIS NEWSLETTER: Sacred Realms of Southeast Asia tour, visiting Angkor Wat, Angkor
Thom, Preah Vihear and the Plain of Jars with Andrew and Hugh Newman. IMOA Conference
report. Upcoming plans for the Origins 2014 Conference. New article on Göbekli
Tepes sister site Karahan Tepe. The Yezidi situation. Brand new article
on the controversial megalithic complex of Gunung Padang in the Indonesian province
of West Java. Is it 24,000 years old?
OF SOUTHEAST ASIA TOUR
Working together with Bruce Cunningham of Ancient
Mysteries International, Hugh Newman of Megalithomania and Hidden Knowledge Tours
and I have put together a unique six-day holiday vacation, which visits Cambodia's
magnificent Hindu-Buddhist temple complexes of Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom, as
well as the countrys Buddhist temple of Preah Vihear. Among its many other
incredible features, Preah Vihear has cyclopean masonry that some suggest is of
pre-Vedic origin. The tour is timed to coincide with the equinoctial sunrise,
which rises along the east-west axis of the Angkor Wat ceremonial complex.
We will also be looking at the repeated occurrence at both Angkor Wat and
Angkor Thom of cosmological numbers such as 54, 72 and 144. Why exactly do they
keep cropping up in sacred architecture throughout the ancient world, and what
is their relationship to cyclic time? These are some of the questions I shall
be asking during the tour, with some answers hopefully forthcoming in time for
me to put together a special presentation for guests. There will also be a four-day,
optional excursion to Laos to investigate the vast fields of mysterious, human-sized
megalithic stone jars on the so-called Plain of Jars. These were created by an
unknown culture during some bygone age, and it will be our job to find out who
made them, when and why.
If you fancy joining us next year for this unique
opportunity to visit the sacred realms of Cambodia and Laos, all information and
how to register is given at the link:
Hi, hope this newsletter finds you well. Lots
of things happening, beginning with a brief review of the IMOA (Inter-dimensional
Minds of Awareness) Conference last Saturday, August 23 in Southend, Essex. I
presented a completely updated version of the LightQuest lecture, bringing in
the connections between UFOs and plasma, multi-dimensional environments, and neutron
star/black candidate Cygnus X-3 (something that Canadian neuroscientist Dr Michael
Persinger did many years ago), and then linking the whole thing with prehistoric
and sacred sites, including Avebury and Göbekli Tepe.
As I pointed
out in The New Circlemakers (2008) Göbekli Tepe is located on the southern
edge of the Ante-Taurus mountain range, an active tectonic region known to produce
strange light phenomena. As early as 1982 earth mysteries writer Paul Devereux,
in his book Earth Lights, made the link between locations where mysterious lights
are frequently seen and the close proximity of prehistoric sites, so asking whether
the Göbekli builders might have been aware of such natural phenomena is a
Following me on stage was science writer Dr Manjir Samanta
Laughton, author of award-winning book Punk Science (2006). She has made an exhaustive
study of black holes, concluding that they are not holes, but visible
perception horizons of multi-dimensional events intrusive into our normal space-time.
As out there as this might seem to mainstream astrophysics her predictions
regarding the nature of black holes have been repeatedly proved correct, providing
her with a sound foundation to launch into more speculative areas, including the
existence and effects of black holes within clouds, planets, stars and even the
human body. She speculates also about the breathing effect of black
hole events on cosmic time cycles, such as Platos Great Year. Also how they
might cause fluctuations in our own relationship with higher dimensions, making
sense of ancient texts that talk about direct contact with gods, angels and spirit
realms (see her website http://www.paradigmrevolution.com
for more information on her fascinating work).
I am happy that Manjir
has the opportunity to present this material at the upcoming Origins 2014 Conference,
giving everyone the chance to hear what she has to say.
And talking of Origins 2014, this takes place on Saturday,
November 15. Other than Manjir, speakers include Professor Robert Temple, revisiting
The Sirius Mystery, Professor Irving Finkel, on the Ark Before Noah, and Brien
Foerster (via video link from Peru), with the very latest news on the Paracas
skulls, and the phenomena of skull elongation worldwide (a topic which, I have
now concluded is crucial to understanding the impact of human hybrids on ancient
society). My co-organiser for the event, Hugh Newman, will provide the best evidence
for the past existence of giants and giant skeletons, and I talk about the rise
of human hybrids (Neaderthal, Denisovan, and anatomically modern humans, i.e.
Homo sapiens), and report also on Göbekli Tepes sister site, Karahan
All this happens on the Saturday, and on the Sunday, November 16,
I will lead a guided tour of the British Museum. We will see items such as the
Rosetta Stone, the Shabaka Stone, the Round Ark tablet, the Babylonian map of
the world (both items feature in Irving Finkels talk), the Ubaid serpent-headed
statues, the treasures of Ur, the obsidian mirror and crystal ball of Dr John
Dee, and whatever else we can find in the time allotted (all this dependent on
whether or not the items are on display, as they are occasionally removed for
exhibitions and cleaning purposes).
The venue for Origins 2014 is Steiner
House, London NW1, close to Gloucester Road and Sherlock Holmes home in
Baker Street. For tickets and info on all lectures, plus details of hotels and
how to get there, go to the following link:
KARAHAN TEPE ARTICLE
I have now completed my evaluation of Karahan
Tepe, Göbekli Tepes sister site, and have posted my findings on Academia.edu:
You can download the article also from Amazon:
Heres the blurb:
Karahan Tepe might be described as a sister
site to the more widely known Pre-Pottery Neolithic sanctuary of Göbekli
Tepe. Both are situated in mountainous terrain in southeast Anatolia (the modern-day
republic of Turkey), just a short distance from the ancient cities of Sanliurfa
and Harran. Both feature settings of T-shaped stone pillars, which are anthropomorphic
in nature and bear carvings either in high relief or 3D. Both were built and then
abandoned during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period. Yet whereas Göbekli Tepe
has received widespread attention, being excavated since 1995 under the auspice
of the German Archaeological Institute in partnership with the Sanliurfa Archaeological
Museum, Karahan Tepe remains relatively obscure.
The author demonstrates
that Karahan Tepe was most likely a regional centre for the veneration of natural
forces, perhaps associated with the symbol of the snake. On site investigations
indicate the rocky outcrop could have acted as a backsight for observations of
the bright star Deneb (a Cyg) in the Cygnus constellation and the Milky Way's
Great Rift, which in the proposed epoch of construction, ca. 8500-8000 BC, would
have set into a prominent flat-topped hill located 1 mile (1.6 kilometres) north-northwest
of Karahan Tepe. Also discussed is Karahan's true name, Keçili, as well
as the sanctuary's possible relationship to Göbekli Tepe, 23 miles (37 kilometres)
away, and the suspected changes in cosmologically beliefs and practices that accompanied
the Neolithic revolution in southwest Asia, ca. 9000 BC.
As you can see
it seems clear that Karahan Tepe continues the theme presented in my earlier books
and articles suggesting that these proto-Neolithic sanctuaries in southeast Anatolia
were orientated north toward the polar region, in particular toward the star Deneb
and the fork or division in the Milky Way known as the Great Rift or Cygnus Rift,
seen as a point of emergence of life as well as the direction of the primal cause
in various ancient cultures.
I believe these ideas originated on the Eurasian
continent during the Upper Palaeolithic age, ca. 40,000-9500 BC, before being
carried on to the North American continent prior to the sinking of the Beringia
land bridge ca. 8500 BC (as stated in my contributions to Greg Littles new
book Path of Souls). They existed alongside a lunar-based cosmology, involving
the importance of a primordial mother, or mother of life, which I have also found
evidence of at Göbekli Tepe.
This ancient stellar-based cosmology
was, I believe, gradually supplanted by a solar oriented religion, which arose
coincident to the start of the agricultural age, which in Anatolia began around
9000 BC. What I show in the Karahan Tepe article is that at Göbekli Tepe
the earliest solar symbol might well have been the lion, which, it seems, also
became associated with the stars of Leo, the celestial lion, at this time. I show
also that the Karahan population were perhaps a breakaway faction who continued
to adhere to a stellar-based cosmology, even after the enclosures at Göbekli
Tepe started to be oriented toward the sun to coincide with its rising and setting
at the time of the equinoxes and solstices. Anyway, take a look at the article
and see what you think. It is also available to view at:
Other matters I could mention before
we get to a new report on the Gunung Padang megalithic complex in Java, Indonesia,
written especially for this newsletter is the tragic plight of the Yezidis
right now in northern Iraq and northern Syria. Yet I feel I have said enough about
this topic on facebook. My heart and soul goes out to them at this time. All I
can say is that this is a disturbing chapter of human history, which marks the
beginning of a new dark age that has the potential of destroying much that has
been achieved technologically, spiritually and culturally by humankind since the
age of Göbekli Tepe and the rise of civilization. Moreover, if not stopped
this dark cloud will threaten the cherished way of life not only of ethno-religious
communities across the Middle East, but also, eventually, those of peoples in
many other countries as well. I am not talking about this year, or next, but in
the generations ahead those of our children and our childrens children.
In whatever way you can, please remember this always, as there is always something
you can do to stop this advance.
If you require a good account of the
Yezidi beliefs and practices, and how they relate to the cosmological ideas of
the Pre-Pottery Neolithic peoples of southeast Anatolia, see my books From the
Ashes of Angels (1996) and also The Cygnus Mystery (2006). And for the origins
of all these beliefs in the Paleolithic age, see Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the
Gods. If you have not secured your copy yet, it is available from Amazon:
Barnes and Noble:
Or you can get a signed copy from me at www.andrewcollins.com.
Until next time, best wishes,
REPORT ON GUNUNG PADANG SOUTHEAST ASIAS LARGEST AND MOST CONTROVERSIAL
By Andrew Collins
Gunung Padang, in Indonesias
West Java province (coordinates: 107° 3'22.40"E 6°59'37.62"S),
is seen as Southeast Asias largest and most enigmatic megalithic complex.
Located near the village of Karyamukti, some 20 miles (30 kilometres) from the
city of Cianjur, and 55 miles (90 kilometres) from the capital Jakarta, it consists
of a series of rectangular stone enclosures with inner partitions, walkways and
gate entrances, as well as various rock mounds, all of them in a ruinous state.
They are constructed of naturally-forming andesite, i.e. basaltic, pillars or
columnar blocks (like those used in the construction of the ancient city of Nan
Madol close to the island of Ponope in Micronesia). The size of the blocks varies
between 25 centimetres and 40 centimetres in width and height, and on average
around 1.5 metres in length, with a weight of approximately 250 kilograms. Some
of blocks, which have either a roughly square or polygonal profile, are actually
much larger in size, with weights exceeding 600 kilograms.
structures occupy five separate terraces, or courtyards, each linked by ascending
staircases marked with standing pillars. These terraces rise in steps to a height
of around 960 metres above sea-level, and cover an area of approximately 900 square
metres. These courtyards are accessed from the north-northwest via an ascending
staircase of 370 steps, which rises at an almost 45º angle. This starts in
the valley below, and from its base to the highest terrace it is about 90 metres.
Each terrace is positioned one in front of the other on a north-northwest-facing
hill formation that is volcanic in nature. Indeed, many geologists believe this
is the source of the andesite pillars used to create the stone settings, a fact
disputed in the light of recent discoveries (see below).
The site was first mentioned in 1914, when it appeared in Rapporten
van de Oudheidkundige Dienst (ROD, Report of the Department of Antiquities).
It is mentioned again in 1949, within the work of Dutch historian N. J. Krom,
although it was not until 1979 that members of the National Archeology Research
Centre made a careful examination of its history, archaeology, and geology.
archaeologists and historians place the construction of Gunung Padangs megalithic
structures firmly within the Bronze Age, ca. 2500-1500 BC. However, geological
surveys conducted at the site since 2011 by Indonesian geologist Danny Hilman
Natawidjaja of the Indonesian Centre for Geotechnical Research suggest the monument
is much older much older indeed.
Core drilling samples and other exploratory
excavations have uncovered evidence that Gunung Padang is a multi-leveled structure,
one phase being built on top of the next, with evidence of activity on the hill
at 22,000-20,000 BC, 14,700 BC, 9,600 BC, 4700 BC and 2800 BC, the final date
being the age of the megalithic structures visible today. Indeed, Danny Hilman
and his team now believe that the entire hill is an artificial pyramid of incredible
antiquity. If correct, this would make it the oldest built structure anywhere
in the world. The ranges of dates cited above derive from carbon-14 testing of
organic materials taken from core drilling samples extracted from a series of
Further evidence of the artificial construction of the
hill comes from the fact that Danny Hilman and his team have uncovered series
of andesite pillars laid down in rows beneath the surface of the hill, and since
andesitic pillars are only ever created vertically, never horizontally, it means
they must form part of an artificial construction (often these andesitic, i.e.
basaltic, columnar pillars are six-sided in profile due to the rapid cooling process
involved in their manufacture. See, for example, those making up the Giants
Causeway in Ireland. Those at Gunung Padang are more irregular in profile).
With the prospect that Gunung Padangs megalithic
complex is in fact a stepped pyramid as much as 12,000 years older than Göbekli
Tepe I felt the matter was definitely worth investigating further. Yet having
not had a chance to visit Gudung Padang myself (I hope to go there next year),
it is difficult to offer any constructive comments regarding the hills proposed
greater antiquity and apparent artificial construction. However, if the radiocarbon
dates can be shown to relate to human activity, and are not simply the result
of natural sediment accumulation on the hill slopes, it is feasible that they
are the result of Paleolithic peoples occupying or visiting a natural cave site
located at the heart of the structure. Indeed, it might well be possible that
the megalithic complex was built to surround an existing cave sanctuary of immense
antiquity (the exploration of caves and rock shelters in eastern Java revealed
evidence of occupation during the Upper Palaeolithic age, approximately between
40,000 years ago and 15,000 years ago, see Peregrine and Ember, 2001, 308).
Danny agrees with this theory. 3D geo-electric, geo-magnetic and geo-radar
surveys have revealed the presence of a hollow chamber 10 metres in width, height
and length at a depth beneath the hill of approximately 25 metres. It apparently
even has two doors in its hallway. He adds that the existence of this suspected
cave chamber was the most likely impetus behind the construction of the multi-layered
pyramid structure as early as the Upper Palaeolithic age. This is supported by
the organic samples extracted from this great depth, which have produced radiocarbon
dates in the range of 22,000-20,000 BC. Obviously, Danny is anxious to explore
these hollow cavities, although he must first gain permission from the correct
authorities to continue his exploration of the site (there is considerable opposition
against his explorations continuing at Gunung Padang. Local people have protested
using banners and placards, raising political and religious issues that the Javanese
government must address before the state-sponsored survey can continue).
THE MATTER OF ORIENTATION
One matter I did attempt to examine with
the help of chartered engineer Rodney Hale were the possible motivations behind
Gudung Padangs north-northwesterly orientation. I felt that if this could
be established with some certainty it might provide a better understanding not
only of the beliefs and practices of its megalithic builders, but also of its
date of construction.
The first thing we had to consider was the nature
of the multiple stone settings, which are situated on five separate terraces or
levels. Were these definitely orientated north-northwest, or might they in fact
face toward the south-southeast? Rodney quickly determined that it could not be
the latter, since the landscape rises considerably toward the south-southeast
making it a very unlikely direction of orientation. In contrast the view to the
north-northwest is unhindered, but for a single hill or mountain some 6 miles
(10 kilometres) away. This rises to a height of approximately 1040 m, which is
approximately 80 metres higher than Gunung Padang. Yet clearly visible beyond
this hill when viewed from Gunung Padang is a double-peaked stratovolcano, which
bears two names: Gunung Pangrango (its western peak, which rises to a height of
3,019 metres) and Gunung Gede (its eastern peak, which rises to a height of 2,958
metres). This lies at a distance of approximately 15 miles (24 miles) from the
megalithic complex, clearly in view of the stone settings on all five terraces.
That Gunung Padang is aligned toward the Pangrango-Gede peaks is strengthened
in the knowledge that legend speaks of Gunung Padang being built by an ancient
race that came originally from this stratovolcano (personal communication with
Rodney Hale determined the mean azimuth of Gunung Padangs
megalithic complex as 343-344º. This two-degree azimuth range targeted the
eastern slopes of the stratovolcano, which was a little disappointing as it meant
there was no way we could conclusively say that Gunung Padang targeted one or
other of the volcanos peaks.
The matter bugged me, so I got together
with Rodney to look at the matter further. Both of us agreed that the north-northwesterly
orientation of Gunung Padangs stepped terraces had to be toward the volcano.
So we looked once more at the axis of the various rectilinear stone settings and
realized that it was the structures on level one, the lowest of the five terraces,
which seemed to define the main axis of the site. This is determined by the placement
of a centrally positioned, and now collapsed rectangular rock mound on the east
of which is a long pathway that ends at the base of a stairway, marked by standing
megaliths, that climbs to the second level. The azimuth of both the rock mound
and the pathway by its side is 342º. This targets the main Gede peak, which
contains the volcanos most notable crater, known as Gumuruh. This suggests
that the centrally-positioned rock mound, originally perhaps a viewing platform
used for ceremonial purposes, was the first construction on the terrace, the rest
of the stone settings most likely coming afterwards. Since the other stone structures
on the lower terrace display a varied assortment of azimuths ranging from 338-348º
they have created a false mean azimuth, which does not target any of the volcanos
If all this is correct it does
suggest that Gunung Padangs megalithic builders saw the stratovolcano as
central to their beliefs and practices, and constructed a viewing platform of
andesitic pillars in order to watch it from a safe distance of around 15 miles.
So the question arises: why focus your attentions on a volcano? The answer probably
lies in the fact that the volcano has been periodically active across the past
10,000 years, with evidence of eruptions in around 10,000 BP (before the present),
4,000 BP, 1,200 BP and 1,000 BP (Belousov et al, 2012). It also erupted in 1840,
with various other minor eruptions since that time. Currently, however, it is
Since the rectilinear rock mound on Gudung Padangs lowest
level was directed toward Gedes main crater, or stratocone,
called Gumuruh, it seemed important to determine exactly when its 1.12 mile (1.8
km) wide caldera was formed. However, organic samples from four different locations
around the crater (including a large debris avalanche deposit at its southeastern
base) have only provided dates earlier than 45,000 years ago, the limit for accurate
Carbon-14 dating (Belousov et al, 2012).
It is possible that the rock
mound defining Gudung Padangs principal axis was built following a major
eruption of the Gumuruh crater, perhaps in order to honour or appease some kind
of fire spirit or deity thought to inhabit the volcano. Since the suspected eruptions
before 45,000 years ago are clearly too early to have had any bearing on building
construction at the site, we should consider the possibility that it followed
one or other of Gedes later eruptions, mostly obviously those of 10,000
BP and/or 4,000 BP. However, these dates fall outside the new radiocarbon evidence
coming from the geological surveys carried out at Gunung Padang, which feature
the dates 22,000-22,000 BC, 14,700 BC, 9600 BC, 4700 BC and 2800 BC. So no more
can be said on the subject at this time, other than to assume that other eruptions
might have taken place, which do correspond with one or other of these dates.
The only thing we can say is that the eruption of 4,000 BP corresponds pretty
well with the conventional dating of Gunung Padangs megalithic complex to
ca. 2500-1500 BC (or 2800 BC according to the recent geological surveys conducted
at the site). This might therefore have some bearing on the orientation of some
of the stone settings visible today. Yet these, Danny Hilman is at pains to point
out, simply reflect the final phase of construction at the site, and that much
older layers of building activity lie deeper inside the hill.
One other point of interest is that the indigenous peoples of
Indonesia (such as the Bontoc and Igorot populations), and also those of the Philippines,
retain legends concerning a great flood that once rose up and consumed the land.
Only one human couple remained alive afterwards, they having either climbed a
mountain and/or sheltered inside a mountain cave. About to die from a lack of
warmth, the Great Spirit, Lumawig, whose own two sons had caused the waters to
consume the earth, goes either to another mountain, or somewhere elsewhere on
the same mountain, and fetches them fire. This burns so brightly and with such
ferocity that it evaporates the floodwater, making the world dry again. By this
time the woman has become pregnant, and so she becomes the progenitor of the next
human race, who go on to repopulate the world (Perry, 1935, 96-98; Bacwaden, 1997,
3-49; and Fire and Flood: An Igorot Folk Tale, http://multoghost.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/fire-and-flood-an-igorot-folktale/).
The connection with an all-encompassing deluge is tantalizing, and might be
based on the memory of a real event in recent geological history. Although there
is simply not enough information in this catastrophe account to connect it with
a specific event, one cannot help but think about the Younger Dryas Boundary impact
event of ca. 10,900 BC. This suspected comet impact, which I detail in my book
Gateway to Atlantis (2000), and also in new book Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the
Gods, is thought to have brought about widescale wildfires, super tsumanis, as
well as a long period of darkness, caused by a dense ash cloud. This in turn triggered
a 1,300-year mini ice age known as the Younger Dryas event. Interestingly, the
catastrophe account cited above says that immediately before the two sons of Lumawig
caused the waters to well up and consume the world the sky darkened
(Bacwaden, 1997, 6).
Perhaps connected is that fragments of the comet
that impacted with the North American continent are speculated to have caused
the water locked up in the ice sheets of the Great Lakes region to instantly vapourise.
This water would then have fallen back to earth as torrential rain for an extended
period of time, causing considerable flooding and a rapid rise in the sea level.
On top of this, the Younger Dryas impact event produced a thick ash layer, known
to science as the Usselo horizon, which has been detected in the geological record
right across Europe, and as far away as Egypt, Southwest Asia and even Australia.
So there is every reason to suspect that this event might have had some impact
on the Indonesian landmass. Perhaps it even triggered eruptions of the Pangrango-Gede
APPEASING THE SPIRITS
Whatever the basis behind
these catastrophe myths, they provide a suitable reason behind the veneration
of fire among the megalithic builders of Indonesia, who have left behind a wide
variety of quite extraordinary stone settings throughout the region (see W. J.
Perrys essential tome The Megalithic Culture of Indonesia, published in
1918, although it makes no mention of Gunung Padang). The Great Spirit Lumawigs
direct association with the procurement of fire on behalf of the flood survivors
is also interesting, and might just refer to the activities of a volcano active
at the time of the aforementioned cataclysm. Once again, this could have some
bearing on the interest shown by the Gunung Padang megalithic builders in the
Pangrando-Gede stratovolcano, enough for them to orient their entire monument
towards one of its peaks. Was Gunung Padang constructed in response to some kind
of global or regional catastrophe? Did the local population believe they needed
to appease the Great Spirit, some kind of local form of Lumawig, in order to prevent
future cataclysms? Did they associate this deity with the stratovolcanos
fiery emissions, and periodic eruptions?
are interesting ideas that we can explore in order to gain a better picture of
Gunung Padangs original function, and perhaps even its greater antiquity.
Perhaps a study of the legends and folklore surrounding Gunung Gede might also
pay dividends. For instance, I read that:
This Park [that is, the Gunung
Gede Pangrango?National Park] is surrounded by ancient superstitions and beliefs.
Legend has it that the spirits of Eyang Suryakencana and Prabu Siliwangi [local
saints] guard Mt. Gede to keep it from erupting. Even now, at certain times of
the year, people flock to the caves around Mt. Gede to meditate or hold ritual
ceremonies (see http://www.dephut.go.id/uploads/INFORMASI/TN%20INDO-ENGLISH/gedepangrango_NP.htm)
These statements alone suggest that in Java the appeasement of local spirits
and deities is necessary to prevent eruptions of the stratovolcano, a matter that
cannot be unconnected with Gunung Padangs orientation toward Gunung Gede.
The mention also of caves in which people flock to meditate at certain times of
year echoes the manner in which the progenitors of the current human race emerged
from a mountain cave in the wake of the all-encompassing flood.
Rodney Hale did look at potential astronomical alignments
based on Gudung Padangs proposed axis of 342º (that is, toward the
main Gede crater), and, using the proposed radiocarbon dates offered by the recent
geological surveys, found the following possible ground-sky correlations:
21,000 BC setting of Cassiopeia.
20,000 BC setting Polaris
in Ursa Minor.
14,900 BC and again in 8750 BC setting of Vega in Lyra.
BC setting of the Cygnus star Deneb and the opening to the Milky Ways
Great Rift, or Cygnus Rift.
5200 BC to 600 BC the setting of various
stars belonging to Ursa Major* and Ursa Minor. Alioth in Ursa Major fits well
twice in this time frame.
2800 to 2700 BC Dubhe of Ursa Major.*
*In Indonesian star-lore Ursa Major is a constellation called Bintang Biduk,
which means Biduk star. A biduk is a boat or canoe.
here is that all these ground-sky correlations are meaningless until Gudung Padangs
exact age of construction can be established with absolute certainty. This can
come only from a full excavation of the site, something that might hopefully reveal
evidence of the material culture behind the construction of Gudung Padang. If,
as claimed, the site does date back to the Upper Paleolithic age, ca. 22,000-9500
BC, then its builders will have left behind masses of stone tools made, used and
discarded during the creation process at the site. We see this at terminal Paleolithic,
or proto Neolithic sites, such as Göbekli Tepe and Karahan Tepe, where even
to this day thousands of stone tool fragments lay scattered about.
of thousands (possibly even millions) of stone tools were found also in the famous
50,000-year-old haematite mines of Bomvu Ridge in the Ngwenya massif of Swaziland.
It is the same everywhere you go, right the way back to the earliest settlements
at Oldavui Gorge in Tanzania. As much as two million years ago our ancestors were
discarding inordinate amounts of worked stone tools, which provide an accurate
means of dating a site contextually. So far no Paleolithic stone tools have been
found at Gunung Padang. When they are, this will help settle the debate once and
for all regarding the greater antiquity of this amazing place, which, I suspect,
is going to be the subject of controversy and debate for some years to come.
Bacwaden, Joy Christine O. The Lumawig Bontoc
Myths. Philippine Studies 45: 1 (1997): 349.
Belousov, A., M. Belousova,
A. Zaennudin, and Prambada, O. Volcaniclastic stratigraphy of Gede volcano
in West Java. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2012, abstract #V41B-2790
(December 2012), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V41B2790B.
Peter M., and Melvin Ember. Encyclopedia of Prehistory, vol. 3: East Asia and
Oceania. New York, NY: Springer, 2001.
Perry, W. J., The Megalithic Culture
of Indonesia. Manchester: Manchester University Press, (1918) 1935.
go out to Danny Hilman and Rodney Hale for their help in enabling me to compile
this preliminary report of Gunung Padang. Thanks also to Catherine Hale for her
October 02 - Sunday, October 05 - Paradigm Symposium, Minneapolis. Join Andrew
as he talks about Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods with Erich von Daniken and
other guest speakers. Click for more
October 09 to Sunday October 12 - The ARE's Ancient Mysteries Conference.
Join Andrew as he talks about Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods with Erich von
Daniken and other guest speakers. Click
for more info.
October 30. Sacred Space Group. Steiner House, London NW 1. Join Andrew for
a talk about Karahan Tepe and human hybrids and their role in human evolution,
and the story of the Watchers of Eden. £10 admission. Concessions. Click
for more info.
November 15/16. Megalithomania and the Questing Conference present Origins
2014: The Origins of Civilization Conference. Steiner House, London NW1, 10am
to 9.30pm. With presentations from Professor Irving Finkel, Robert Temple, Brien
Foerster, Andrew Collins, Hugh Newman, and Dr Manjir Samantha-Laughton. London
Walkabout around the British Museum. Click
now for full details and immediate registration.
December 04. Dorset Earth Mysteries Group. Audio-visual
presenation on psychic questing. Venue Stapehill Village Hall, 224 Wimborne Road
West, Stapehill BH21 2DY at 7:15pm Entrance £4.50. Click
for more info.